1Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia
Leg Length Discrepancy in College Students and Its Association with Low Back Pain: a Preliminary Study
Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a condition in which lower extremities have a different length. The discrepancy can cause functional dysfunction and health problem. Low back pain (LBP) is one of a health problem associated with LLD. The prevalence of LBP in young people increases over time. This study aimed to evaluate the association between LLD and LBP in college students. This cross-sectional study involved 75 (40 female) students of Faculty of Medicine, Atma Jaya. Height, weight, and BMI were measured and calculated. True leg length was measured three times using tape measurement in the supine position. The LLD was defined as the difference of 10 mm or more. Numeric data between LLD vs no LLD were compared using independent samples of the t-test. The association between LLD, LBP, and other variables were evaluated using chi-square. A p-value <0.05 was set as statistically significant. Statistics analysis was computed using SPSS (ver. 17). Leg length discrepancy and LBP were found in 31 (22 female) and 36 (22 female), respectively. Among those with LBP, 16 were LLD (44.4%). No association was found between LBP and LLD (p=0.548), BMI (p=0.518), and gender (p=0.164). Gender was associated with LLD (OR 3.53, 95%CI 1.32 - 9.42, p=0.010). Only 5 (13.9%) of affected LBP experienced dysfunctional state. There is no relationship between LLD, gender, BMI and LBP in students of the Faculty of Medicine. Female have a higher risk of LLD.
Leg Length Discrepancy, Low Back Pain, Students’ College, Gender Different, Body Mass Index
Gross, R.H. (1978). Leg length discrepancy: how much is too much? Orthopedics, 1(4), 307-310.
Raczkowski, J.W., Daniszewska, B., & Zolynski, K. (2010). Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy. Archives of Medical Science, 6(3), 393-398.
Shailam, R., Jaramillo, D., & Kan, J.H. (2013). Growth arrest and leg-length discrepancy. Pediatric Radiology, 43(S1), 155-165.
Liu, X.C., Fabry, G., Molenaers, G., Lammens, J., & Moens, P. (1998). Kinematic and kinetic asymmetry in patients with leg-length discrepancy. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 18(2), 187-189.
Lunde, L.K., Koch, M., Hanvold, T.N., Waersted, M., & Veiersted, K.B. (2015). Low back pain and physical activity. A 6.5 year follow-up among young adults in their transition from school to working life. BMC Public Health, 15, 1115. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2446-2.
Delitto, A., George, S.Z., van Dillen, L.R., Whitman, J.M., Sowa, G.A., & Shekelle, P., Denninger, T.R., Godges, J.J. (2012). Low back pain. Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 42(4), A1-7.
Katz, J.N. (2006). Lumbar disc disorders and low back pain: socioeconomic factors and consequences. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery America, 88(S2), 21-24.
Koes, B.W., van Tulder, M., Lin, C.W., Macedo, L.G., McAuley, J., & Maher, C. (2010). An updated overview of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary care. European Spine Journal, 19(12), 2075-2094.
Xia, T., Long, C.R., Vining, R.D., Gudavalli, M.R., DeVocht, J.W., Kawchuk, G.N., Wilder, D.G., & Goertz, C.M. (2017). Association of lumbar spine stiffness and flexion-relaxation phenomenon with patient-reported outcomes in adults with chronic low back pain - a single-arm clinical trial investigating the effects of thrust spinal manipulation. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 303. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1821-1.
Noormohammadpour, P., Khezri, A. H., Linek, P., Mansournia, M. A., Hassannejad, A., Younesian, A., Farahbakhsh, F., & Kordi R. (2016). Comparison of lateral abdominal muscle thickness and cross sectional area of multifidus in adolescent soccer players with and without low back pain: A case control study. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(4), e38318. https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.38318.
Goss, D.L., Moore, J.H., Slivka, E.M., & Hatler, B.S. (2006). Comparison of injury rates between cadets with limb length inequalities and matched control subjects over 1 year of military training and athletic participation. Military Medicine, 171(6), 522–525.
Rannisto, S., Okuloff, A., Uitti, J., Paananen, M., Rannisto, P.H., Malmivaara, A., & Karppinen, J. (2015). Leg-length discrepancy is associated with low back pain among those who must stand while working. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorder, 16(1) 110. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-015-0571-9.
Sheha, E.D., Steinhaus, M.E., Kim, H.J., Cunningham, M.E., Fragomen, A.T., & Rozbruch, S.R. (2018). Leg-length discrepancy, functional scoliosis, and low back pain. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery Review, 6(8), e6. https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.17.00148.
Vujcic, I., Stojilovic, N., Dubljanin, E., Ladjevic, N., Ladjevic, I., & Sipetic-Grujicic, S. (2018). Low back pain among medical students in Belgrade (Serbia): A cross-sectional study. Pain Research and Management, 2018, 1-6 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8317906.
Haroon, H., Mehmood, S., Imtiaz, F., Ali, S.A., & Sarfraz, M. (2018). Musculoskeletal pain and its associated risk factors among medical students of a public sector University in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 68(4), 682–688.
Ganesan, S., Acharya, A.S., Chauhan, R., & Acharya, S. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain in 1,355 young adults: a cross-sectional study. Asian Spine Journal, 11(4), 610–617.
Leboeuf-Yde C. (2004). Back pain - individual and genetic factors. Journal of Electromyography Kinesiology, 14(1), 129-133.
Boćkowski, L., Sobaniec, W., Kułak, W., Smigielska-Kuzia, J., Sendrowski, K., & Roszkowska, M. (2007). Low back pain in school-age children: risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic management. Advance in Medical Science, 52(S1), 221-223.
Yue, P., Liu, F., Li, L. (2012). Neck/shoulder pain and low back pain among school teachers in China, prevalence and risk factors. BMC Public Health, 12, 789. doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-789.