1College of Applied Sciences „Lavoslav Ružička“ in Vukovar, Croatia
2“HNK Vukovar 1991” Vukovar, Croatia
Differences in morphological characteristic of footballers over two preparatory periods
The morphological characteristics of athletes are one of the essential factors of sporting achievements in different sports. Football is one of the sports where monitoring changes in the morphological characteristics is a standard process for monitoring training effects. Purpose of this paper was to show changes in the morphological characteristics of footballers over two preparatory periods during one year. Morphological characteristics of footballers were analyzed using a bioelectric impedance method on body analyzer Tanita MC 780, height was measured using SECA type 220. Statistical analysis was done with IBM SPSS Statistics 26, with statistical significance set at p≤0.05. During the first preparatory period, statistically significant changes were found for the following variables: Total body water (TBW) (MD= -0.86; p=0.02), Intra celular water (ICW) (MD= -0.70; p=0.03), Percent Muscle Mass (PMM) (MD= -1.04; p=0.012). During the second preparatory period, statistically significant changes were found for the following variables: Percent Body Fat (PBF) (MD= -1.40; p=0.02), TBW (MD= 1.25; p=0.01), ICW (MD= 0.10; p=0.004), PMM (MD= 1.30; p=0.01). Concerning the obtained results, we conclude that the training process is not the only factor influencing the morphological characteristics of athletes.
Body Composition, Body Water, Athletes, Muscles
Alvero-Cruz, J. R., Brikis, M., Chilibeck, P., Frings-Meuthen, P., Vico Guzmán, J. F., Mittag, U., ... Rittweger, J. (2021). Age-related decline in vertical jumping performance in masters track and field athletes: concomitant influence of body composition. Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 404. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.643649
Clemente, F. M., Ramirez-Campillo, R., & Sarmento, H. (2021). Detrimental effects of the off-season in football players: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 51(4), 795-814. https://doi.org/10.1007/s4027 9-020-01407-4.
Devlin, B. L., Kingsley, M., Leveritt, M. D., & Belski, R. (2017). Seasonal changes in football players’ body composition and dietary intake practices. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(12), 3319-3326. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001751
Dodd, K. D., & Newans, T. J. (2018). Talent identification for football: Physiological aspects. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 21(10), 1073-1078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.01.009
Esco, M. R., Fedewa, M. V., Cicone, Z. S., Sinelnikov, O. A., Sekulic, D., Holmes, C. J. (2018). Field-based performance tests are related to body fat percentage and fat-free mass, but not body mass index, in youth football players. Sports, 6(4), 105. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040105
Hetherington-Rauth, M., Baptista, F., & Sardinha, L. B. (2020). BIA-assessed cellular hydration and muscle performance in youth, adults, and older adults. Clinical Nutrition, 39(8), 2624-2630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.11.040
Hulton, A. T., Malone, J. J., Clarke, N. D., & MacLaren, D. P. (2022). Energy Requirements and Nutritional Strategies for Male Football Players: A Review and Suggestions for Practice. Nutrients, 14(3), 657. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030657
Krespi, M., Sporiš, G., & Mandić-Jelaska, P. (2018). Effects of two different tapering protocols on fitness and body composition in young football players: positional differences. Acta Kinesiologica, 12(1), 62-71.
Leão, C., Camões, M., Clemente, F. M., Nikolaidis, P. T., Lima, R., Bezerra, P., ... & Knechtle, B. (2019). Anthropometric profile of football players as a determinant of position specificity and methodological issues of body composition estimation. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(13), 2386. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132386
Lorenzo, I., Serra-Prat, M., & Yébenes, J. C. (2019). The role of water homeostasis in muscle function and frailty: a review. Nutrients, 11(8), 1857. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081857
Martins, P. C., Teixeira, A. S., Guglielmo, L. G. A., Francisco, J. S., Silva, D. A. S., Nakamura, F. Y., Lima, L. R. A. D. (2021). Phase angle is related to 10 m and 30 m sprint time and repeated-sprint ability in young male football players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9), 4405. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094405
Slimani, M., & Nikolaidis, P. T. (2017). Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of male Football players according to their competitive level, playing position and age group: a systematic review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 59(1), 141-163.
Spehnjak, M., Gušić, M., Molnar, S., Baić, M., Andrašić, S., Selimi, M., ...Trajković, N. (2021). Body composition in elite football players from youth to senior squad. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(9), 4982. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094982
Sporis, G., Jukic, I., Ostojic, S. M., & Milanovic, D. (2009). Fitness profiling in football: physical and physiologic characteristics of elite players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(7), 1947-1953. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b3e141
Styles, W. J., Matthews, M. J., & Comfort, P. (2016). Effects of strength training on squat and sprint performance in football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 30(6), 1534-1539. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001243
Suarez-Arrones, L., Saez de Villarreal, E., Núñez, F. J., Di Salvo, V., Petri, C., Buccolini, A., ...Mendez-Villanueva, A. (2018). In-season eccentric-overload training in elite football players: Effects on body composition, strength and sprint performance. PloS one, 13(10), e0205332. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205332
Tereso, D., Paulo, R., Petrica, J., Duarte-Mendes, P., Gamonales, J. M., Ibáñez, S. J. (2021). Assessment of Body Composition, Lower Limbs Power, and Anaerobic Power of Senior Football Players in Portugal: Differences According to the Competitive Level. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(15), 8069. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158069
Vasold, K. L., Parks, A. C., Phelan, D. M., Pontifex, M. B., & Pivarnik, J. M. (2019). Reliability and validity of commercially available low-cost bioelectrical impedance analysis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 29(4), 406-410. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0283